بازنمایی ادراک دانشجویان از سنجش کلاسی عادلانه: یک مطالعه‌ کیفی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری سنجش و اندازه‌گیری، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه روش‌ها و برنامه‌های آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه روش ها و برنامه های آموزشی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 استاد گروه مبانی فلسفی و اجتماعی آموزش پرورش، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

5 استادیار گروه برنامه ریزی درسی، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی ، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

10.22034/emes.2021.249163

چکیده

هدف: پیشرفت تحصیلی دانشجویان تابعی از کیفیت سواد و عملکرد سنجشی اعضای هیأت علمی و ادراک دانشجویان از بازخوردهای آن است. به­دلیل فقدان شناخت کافی نسبت به عدالت‌ادراک شده دانشجویان از عملکرد سنجشی اعضای هیأت علمی و نقش تعیین‌کننده آن، در پژوهش حاضر تلاش کردیم تا ادراک دانشجویان دربارۀ مفهوم سنجش کلاسی عادلانه را معناکاوی کرده، بازنمایی کنیم.
روش پژوهش: بدین‌منظور مطالعه­ای به روش پدیدارشناسی تفسیری انجام‌شد و مصاحبه­های نیمه­ساختاریافته برای جمع­آوری داده­ها به­کار رفت. با کاربرد نمونه­گیری ملاکی و پس از انجام 29 مصاحبه فردی، یک مصاحبه گروهی و یک مصاحبه گروه کانونی با دانشجویانی که حداقل دو ترم تجربه حضور در دانشگاه تهران را داشتند، اشباع نظری داده‌ها حاصل شد.  
یافته‌ها: تحلیل ادراک دانشجویان با استفاده از روش ریکور و در سه مرحلۀ ساده‌خوانی، تحلیل ساختاری و درک جامع انجام شد. استخراج واحدهای معنایی به شناسایی 16 زیرمضمون منجر شد که در 4 مضمون اصلی «عدالت آموزشی» با زیرمضامین مدیریت کلاس، کیفیت تدریس و عدالت رویه­ای- آموزشی؛ «ماهیت سنجش» با زیرمضامین سطح شناختی، هدف سنجش، روایی، پایایی، سنجش اصیل، سنجش فرایند، آزمون کتبی و منبع سنجش؛ «عدالت تعاملی» با زیرمضامین عوامل غیرمرتبط، عدالت اطلاعاتی و رفتار محترمانه؛ و «انصاف» با زیرمضامین تناسب با علائق و تناسب با ویژگی­های شخصیتی دسته‌بندی شد.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان داد که ادراک دانشجویان از عدالت در سنجش، ترکیبی از مفاهیم نظریه­های اندازه­گیری و عدالت سازمانی است؛ بنابراین آگاهی اعضای هیأت علمی از این مفاهیم و انطباق این مفاهیم با فرایند سنجش کلاسی به­منظور رسیدن به سنجش کلاسی عادلانه­تر ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Students’ perceptions of fair classroom assessment: A qualitative study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Bani Asadi 1
  • Keyvan Salehi 2
  • Ebrahim Khodaie 3
  • Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast 4
  • Balal Izanloo 5
1 Ph.D. Student, University of Tehran, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, University of Tehran, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, University of Tehran, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Tehran, Iran
4 Professor, University of Tehran, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Tehran, Iran
5 Associate Professor, University of Kharazmi, Faculty of Psychology and Education , Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective: Students 'academic achievement is a function of the quality of literacy and faculty members' assessment performance and students' perception of its feedback. Due to the lack of sufficient knowledge about students' perceived fairness of faculty members' assessment, performance and its determining role, in the present study, we tried to interpret and represent students' perceptions about the concept of fair classroom assessment.
Methods: To achieve this aim, an interpretive phenomenology study was carried out. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, after conducting 29 individual interviews, one group interview and one focus group interview with students who had at least two semesters of experience in the University of Tehran, data saturation was obtained.  
Results: Students' point of view analysis was performed using the Ricoeur method in three stages: naive reading, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding. Extraction of meaning units led to the identification of 16 sub-themes in 4 main themes of "educational fairness" with the sub-themes of classroom management, teaching quality and procedural-educational fairness; "Nature of assessment" with the sub-themes of cognitive level, purpose of assessment, validity, reliability, authentic assessment, process assessment, written test and source of assessment; "Interactional fairness" with the sub-themes of unrelated factors, informational fairness and respectful behavior; And "equity" with the sub-themes of appropriate to interests and appropriate to personality traits.
Conclusion: The results showed that students' concern and perception of fairness in assessment is a combination of concepts in theories of measurement and organizational justice. Therefore, professors' awareness of these concepts and adapting these concepts to the classroom assessment process is essential to achieve a fairer classroom assessment

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • classroom assessment
  • fairness
  • Justice
  • phenomenology study
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