شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر مهاجرت نخبگان با تأکید بر محیط کالبدی کشورهای مقصد (موردمطالعه: دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی دانشگاه کاشان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و اکو توریسم، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه کاشان، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه کاشان، ایران

10.22034/emes.2021.249176

چکیده

هدف: پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر مهاجرت دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی دانشگاه کاشان به کشورهای مقصد مهاجرت و سنجش اثرگذاری محیط کالبدی کشورهای مقصد در مقایسه با سایر عوامل در مهاجرت نخبگان می‌باشد.
روش پژوهش: این مطالعه با روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی و از نوع کاربردی بوده که حجم نمونه با استفاده از نرم‌افزار Sample Power با سطح اطمینان 95 درصد و خطای احتمالی 5 درصد 150 نفر دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری دانشگاه کاشان محاسبه شد. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل توصیفی و استنباطی داده‌ها از آزمون آماری T-Test در نرم‌افزار SPSS و جهت تبیین و مدل‌سازی اثرات نیز از مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری در نرم‌افزار AMOS استفاده گردید. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها پرسشنامه استاندارد و محقق ساخته است که ضریب پایایی با استفاده از آلفا کرونباخ تأیید گردید.
یافته‌ها: تحلیل یافته‌های منتج از مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری بیانگر این است که از بین شاخص‌های موردسنجش، شاخص نظم اجتماعی و قانون‌گرایی بیشترین بار عاملی با وزن رگرسیونی (98/0) و پس از آن عوامل اجتماعی و فرهنگی با وزن رگرسیونی (96/0) و شاخص‌های سیاسی و اقتصادی به صورت مشترک با وزن رگرسیونی (88/0) رتبه‌بندی شدند و شاخص‌های علمی-آموزشی-پژوهشی، محیط کالبدی و قصد مهاجرت نیز با بارهای عاملی(78/0)، (60/0)، (54/0) در مرتبه‌های بعدی قرار گرفته‌اند و  قصد مهاجرت نخبگان در رابطه با محیط کالبدی کشور مقصد با وزن عاملی 39/0 را نشان داد.
نتیجه‌گیری: پس از تحلیل جزئی‌تر شاخص‌های مذکور رفاه و تأمین اجتماعی بهتر، رضایت شغلی، وجود آزادی در ابراز عقیده، اعتبارات و تسهیلات بالای پژوهشی و نبودن قوانین دست و پاگیر برای نخبگان، رعایت قوانین و مقررات و زیرساخت‌های ارتباطی کشور مقصد بیشترین عامل‌های تمایل مهاجرت نخبگان تشخیص داده شد و بررسی نتایج دلایل مهاجرت نخبگان بر اساس دیدگاه سیستمی و نظریه‌های جاذبه ـ دافعه و محرومیت نسبی تبیین گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the factors affecting the migration of elites with emphasis on the physical environment of the destination countries(Case study: Graduate students of Kashan University)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rasol Heidary Soureshjani 1
  • Farshad Falahaty 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Ecotourism, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, Kashan University, Iran
2 Master student of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, Kashan University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the factors affecting the migration of graduate students of Kashan University to the destination countries and to assess the impact of the physical environment of the destination countries in comparison with other factors in the migration of elites.
Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytical method and the sample size was calculated using Sample Power software with 95% confidence level and 5% possible error of 150 graduate and doctoral students of Kashan University. T-test was used for descriptive and inferential analysis of data in SPSS software and structural equation modeling in AMOS software was used to explain and model the effects.
Results: that among the measured indicators, social order index and legalism, the factor with the most regression weight (0.98) and then social and cultural factors with regression weight (0.96) and indicators Political and economic were ranked jointly with regression weight (0.88) and scientific-educational-research indicators, physical environment and migration intention with factor loads (0.78), (0.60), (0.54) the intention of elite migration in relation to the physical environment of the destination country with a factor weight of 0.39.
Conclusion: After a more detailed analysis of the mentioned indicators of better welfare and social security, job satisfaction, high research credits and facilities and no cumbersome rules for the elite, compliance with the laws and regulations and communication infrastructure of the destination country are the most factors of elite migration tendency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Elite migration
  • Brain Drain
  • physical environment
  • Kashan University
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