The Study of the Measurement and Structural Invariance of the Relationship among Some of Constructions of TIMMS International Study (2011) Based on Students' Gender

Document Type : Original Article



This study was done with the aim to survey the measurement and structure invariance of TIMMS 2011six constructs mathematical achievement, attitude towards mathematics, readiness skills, parental involvement, home resources, and family’s socio–economic condition based on a theoretical model. A total number of 5760 fourth graders elementary students were the participants of the study who had participated in TIMSS in 2011. The results showed that in the male group, the relation of the observable and latent variables had a better fit. In causal relationships significance, the male group showed a better fit compared to the female group in most cases. In the male group reliability of measured indictors had a better reliability compared to the female group. In regression coefficients, except for prediction of the “readiness skills” by the “home resources” and prediction of the “attitude towards mathematics” by the “parental involvement”, the male groups’ relationships were more precise than the female group. The female group had a more systematic bias in answering all of the questions compared to the male group. As a conclusion, it can be said that the mathematical achievement and the variables affecting it in the two groups had different meaning and were measured with different precisions.


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