Psychometric Properties of Wisdom Development Questionnaire in Students of Semnan University

Document Type : Original Article



The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the inventory of the wisdom development in students of Semnan University.A total of 607 students of Semnan University participated in this study who filled the wisdom development questionnaire, psychological well-being questionnaires and mental health Keyes questionnaire. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the data fits with an eight-factor model. The internal consistency of the inventory was high. Autonomy, inspirational engagement and self-knowledge; being purposeful in life, inspirational engagement and judgment; self-acceptance and judgment; age and all in subscales wisdom development had significant relationships. Emotional well-being, emotional management and inspirational engagement; psychological well-being, skills and life knowledge, inspirational engagement, emotional management and self- knowledge had significant relationships. The average score of professors surpassed students in all dimension. Boys' scores in inspirational engagement and emotional management were meaningfully higher than girls. Score of dimensions has increased with higher grade level. The wisdom development inventory is a valid and reliable instrument.


اسعدی، سمانه؛ امیری، شعله؛ مولوی، حسین؛ باقری نوع‌پرست، خسرو (1392). معرفی مفهوم خردمندی در روان‌شناسی و کاربردهای آموزشی آن. رویکردهای نوین آموزشی،2 (18)، 1- 28.
خانجانی، مهدی؛ شهیدی، شهریار؛ فتح‌آبادی، جلیل؛ مظاهری‌ تهرانی، محمدعلی و شکری، امید (1393). ساختار عاملی و ویژگی‌های روان‌سنجی فرم کوتاه 18 سؤالی مقیاس بهزیستی روان‌شناختی ریف در دانشجویان دختر و پسر. اندیشه و رفتار در روان‌شناسی بالینی- دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رودهن، 8، 27-36.
Anić, P. & Tončić, M. (2013). Orientations to Happiness, Subjective Well-being and Life Goals. Psychological Topics, 1, 135-153.
Ardelt, M. (1997). Wisdom and life satisfaction in old age. Journal of Gerontology Psychological Sciences, 52B, 15 – 27.
Ardelt, M. (2000). Intellectual versus wisdom-related knowledge: The case for a different kind of learning in the later years of life. Educational Gerontology. An International Journal of Research and Practice, 26 (8), 771–789.
 Ardelt, M. (2003). Empirical assessment of a three-dimensional wisdom scale. Research on Aging, 25 (3), 275-324.
Ardelt, M. (2009). How similar are wise men and women? A comparison across two cohorts Research in Human Development, 6 (1), 9–2.
Baltes, P. B. & Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A Meta heuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122–136.
Brown, S. C. & Greene, J. A. (2006). The wisdom development scale: Translating the Conceptual to the Concrete. Journal of college student development, 4 (1), 1-19.
Brown, S. C. (2004). Learning across campus: How college facilitates the development of wisdom. Journal of College Student Development, 45, 134-148.
Chin, L. M.; Wu, P. J.; Cheng, Y. Y. & Hsueh, H. I. (2011). A qualitative inquiry of wisdom development: Educators perspectives. Aging and Human Development, 72 (3), 171-178.
Greene, J. A. & Brown, S. C. (2009). The wisdom development scale: further validity investigation. Aging and Human Development, 68 (4), 289-320.
Kekes, J. (1983). Wisdom. American Philosophical Quarterly, 20 (3), 277-286.
Knight, A. J. & Parr, W. V. (1999). Age as a factor in judgments of wisdom and creativity. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 28, 37–47.
Levitt, H. M. (1999). The development of wisdom: An analysis of Tibetan Buddhist experience. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 39 (2), 86-105.
McKee, P., & Barber, C. (1999). On defining wisdom. Journal of aging and human development, 49 (2), 149–164.
Osterlund, l. C. (2014). Wisdom in the Counseling Relationship. Jesuit Higher Education, 3 (2), 74-84.
Pasupathi, M.; Staudinger, U. M. & Baltes, P. B. (2001). Seeds of wisdom: Adolescents’ knowledge and judgment about difficult life problems. Developmental Psychology, 37, 351–361.
Riff, C. D.; Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The Structure of Psychological Well-Being Revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69 (4), 719-727.
Roharikova, V.; Spajdel, M.; Cvikova, V. & Jagla, F. (2013). Tracing the relationship between wisdom and health. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva, 55 (3), 95-102
Shahsavarani, A. M.; Hakimi Kalkhoran, M.; Alirezaloo, N. & Sattari, K. (2015). Teaching for wisdom as a strategy to improve quality of life and aggregate social capital. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 5 (9S), 143-149.
Smith, J. & Baltes, P. B. (1990). Wisdom-related knowledge: age/Cohort differences in responses to life planning problems. Developmental Psychology, 26 (3), 494-505.
Staudinger, U. M. (1999). Older and Wiser? Integrating Results on the Relationship between age and wisdom-related Performance. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23 (3), 641–664.
Staudinger, U. M. & Gluck, J. (2011). Psychological wisdom research commonalities and differences in a growing field. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 215-241.
Sternberg, R. J. (2004). What is wisdom and how can we develop it? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social, 591, 164–74.
Strenberg, R. J. (1998). A balance theory of wisdom. Review of General Psychology, 2 (4), 347-365.
Thomas, L. Eugene. )1991.) “Dialogues with Three Religious Renunciates and Reflections on Wisdom and Maturity.”International. Journal of Aging and Human Development, 32, 211-27.
Webster, J. D. (2003). An exploratory analysis of a self-assessed wisdom scale. Journal of Adult Development, 10 (1), 13-22.
Webster, J. (2010). Wisdom and positive psychosocial values in young adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 17, 70-80.
William, B., Brown, T., & Osman, A. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis: A five – step guide for novices. Australian Journal Paramedicine, 8 (3), 1-14.
Wink, P., & Helson, R. (1997). Practical and transcendent wisdom: Their nature and some longitudinal findings. Journal of Adult Development, 4 (1), 1-15.
Yang, S. Y. (2008). A Process View of Wisdom. Journal of Adult Development, 15, 62-75.