Examining the Relationship between Assessment for Learning and Students’ Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use: A Multilevel Model

Document Type : Original Article



This descriptive-correlational study aimed to investigate the relationship between assessment for learning and Students’ Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use at student, class and school levels. In this study, 888 high school students in the first secondary level in the School Year 2015-2016 in Hamadan city were selected (via cluster sampling method) out of 26956 students. The tools used to collect the required data included the following means: a) a demographic information questionnaires, b) Student Assessment for Learning (SAFL) (Pat-EI, 2013) and Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire (CP-SRL) (Vandevelde, Van keer & Rosseel, 2013). Regarding the data analysis, it was attempted to make use of descriptive statistics and multilevel models. The results showed that there was a significant positive relationship between assessment for learning and self-regulated learning and that the latter relationship was affected at the class level and, thus, the school level had no impact on the strength of this relationship. The results of this study emphasized the importance of assessing in delegating the responsibility of learning to students themselves. As such, assessment could be regarded a powerful tool for promoting students’ use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies.


حیدرزاده، محسن؛ مهرام، بهروز و کارشکی، حسین (1395). نقش ساختار ارزشیابی کلاسی ادراک شده و جهت­گیری پژوهشی دانشجویان در انگیزش پژوهشی آنان. مجله مطالعات آموزش و یادگیری، 8 (1)، 50 – 68.
Andrade, H. & Du, Y. (2005). Student perspectives on rubric-referenced assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10, 1–11. Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=10&n=3.
Baas, B.; Castelijns, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Martens, R. & Segers, M. (2015). The relation between assessment for learning and elementary students’ cognitive and metacognitive strategy use. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 33–46.
Bennett, R. E. (2011). Formative assessment: A critical review. Assessment in Education:Principles,Policy and Practice, 18, 5–25. doi:10.1080/0969594X.2010.513678
Birenbaum, M.; Kimron, H.; Shilton, H. & Shahaf-Barzilay, R. (2009). Cycles of inquiry: Formative assessment in service of learning in classrooms and in school-based professional communities. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 35, 130–149. doi:10.1016/j.stueduc.2010.01.001
Black, P.; Harrison, C.; Lee, C.; Marshall, B. & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box:Assessment for Learning in the classroom. London, UK: GL Assessment.
Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education:Principles, Policy and Practice, 5, 7–73. Doi: 10.1080/0969595980050102
Black, P. & Wiliam, W. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. EducationalAssessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21, 5–31. doi:10.1007/s11092-008-9068-5
Boekaerts, M. (1999). Self-regulated learning: Where are we today? International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 445–457. doi:10.1016/S0883-0355(99)00014-2
Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65, 245–281. doi:10.3102/00346543065003245
Clark, I. (2012). Formative assessment: Assessment is for self-regulated learning. EducationalPsychology Review, 24, 205–249. Doi: 10.1007/s10648-011-9191-6
Dinsmore, D. L. & Alexander, P. A. (2012). A critical discussion of deep and surface processing: What it means, how it is measured, the role of context, and model specification. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 499–567. doi:10.1007/s10648-012-9198-7
Dunn, K. E. & Mulvenon, S. W. (2009). A critical review of research evidence on formative assessment: The limited scientific evidence of the impact of formative assessment in education. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 14. Retrieved from http://www.pareonline. net/pdf/v14n7.pdf
Gijbels, D.; Van de Watering, G.; Dochy, F. & Van den Bossche, P. (2005). The relationship between students’ approaches to learning and the assessment of learning outcomes. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 20, 327–341. doi:10.1007/BF03173560
Goldstein, H. (2010). Multilevel Statistical Models (4th ed). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Hattie, J. & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81–112. doi:10.3102/003465430298487
Hu, L. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
Kingston, N. & Nash, B. (2011). Formative assessment: A meta-analysis and a call for research. Educational Measurement: Issues & Practice, 30, 28–37. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3992.2011.00220.x
Klenowski, V. (2009). Assessment for Learning revisited: An Asia-Pacific perspective. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 16, 263–268. doi:10.1080/09695940903319646
Kostons, D.; Van Gog, T. & Paas, F. (2012). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning. Learning & Instruction, 22, 121–133. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.004
Nicol, D. J. & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: Amodel and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31, 199–218. doi:10.1080/03075070600572090
Panadero, E., & Jonsson, A. (2013). The use of scoring rubrics for formative assessment purposes revisited: A review. Educational Research Review, 9, 129–144. doi:10.1016/j.edurev.2013.01.002
Pat-El, R. J.; Tillema, H.; Segers, M. & Vedder, P. (2013). Validation of Assessment for learning questionnaires for teachers and students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 98–113. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.02057.x
Perry, N. E. (1998). Young children’s self-regulated learning and contexts that support it. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 4, 715–729. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.90.4.715
Peeters, J.; De Backer, F.; Romero Reina, V.; Kindekens, A.; Buffel, T. & Lombaerts, K. (2014). The role of teachers’ self-regulatory capacities in the implementation of self-regulated learning practices. Procedia - Social & Behavioral Sciences. 116, 1963 – 1970. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.504
Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 385–407. doi:10.1007/s10648-004-0006-x
Revelle, W. (2016) psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA, http://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=psych Version = 1.6.6.
Sadler, D. R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18, 119–144. doi:10.1007/BF00117714
Vandevelde, S.; Van Keer, H. & Rosseel, Y. (2013). Measuring the complexity of upper primary school children’s self-regulated learning: A multi-component approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, 407–425. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.09.002
William, D. (2011). What is assessment for learning? Studies in Educational Evaluation, 37, 3–14. doi:10.1016/j.stueduc.2011.03.001
Wiliam, D.; Lee, C.; Harrison, C. & Black, P. (2004). Teachers developing assessment for learning: Impact on student achievement. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 11, 49–65. doi:10.1080/0969594042000208994.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychology, 25 (1), 3-17.