Examining the status of Well-Being in the MA TEFL Curriculum in Iran (Viewpoints of Students and Professors)

Document Type : Original Article



Given the high importance of students’ wellbeing in the higher education system and their life, this descriptive research aimed at investigating MA TEFL curriculum in Iran from the approach of Wellbeing Theory. As such, 101 participants (34 professors and 67 MA TEFL students) were conveniently chosen from 28 public universities in Iran. A 5-item researcher-made questionnaire (wisdom, courage, humanity, justice and mediation) was used as the data collection tool in this study. The results of T-test revealed significant differences between male and female students in terms of the current program, between male and female professors in terms of the recommended program and between students and professors in terms of the current and the recommended programs. Professors and students believed that the forenamed five factors should be more important than what they were currently observed. Professors and students presented some strategies and suggestions for improving students’ well-being.


پایگاه خبری مهر (13 تیر، 1389). آمار و دلایل اخراج و انصراف دانشجویان در 10 دانشگاه: کنکوری‌ها دقت کنند. برگرفته از:
حیدری، زهرا و محمدی، رضا (1394). ارزیابی کیفیت خدمات آموزشی دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ بر اساس مدل سروکوآل از دیدگاه دانشجویان. فصلنامه مطالعات اندازه‌گیری و ارزشیابی آموزشی،  5(11)، 119-142.
شعبانی، زهرا (1388). بررسی ارزشیابی برنامه درسی قرآن پایه چهارم ابتدایی. فصلنامه تربیت اسلامی،  4(8)، 105-140.
نجفی، حسن؛ سبحانی‌نژاد، مهدی و جعفری هرندی، رضا (1394). ارزیابی کیفیت برنامه‌های آموزشی دانشگاه پیام نور قم بر اساس الگوی (NADE-TDEC). فصلنامه مطالعات اندازه‌گیری و ارزشیابی آموزشی، 5 (10)، 89-107.
Abolfazli Khonbi, Z. & Sadeghi, K. (2016). Language Learning Histories and Learner variables in an MA TEFL Programme: A Well-being Perspective. Teaching English Language Journal, 10 (2), 151-185.
Administration for Children and Families (2010). The program manager's guide to evaluation. Washington, DC: Office of planning, research and evaluation.
Ahn, H. S.; Usher, E. L.; Butz, A. & Bong, M. (2016). Cultural differences in the understanding of modelling and feedback as sources of self-efficacy information. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 86,112–136.
Bernardo, A. B.; Salanga, M. G. C.; Khan, A. & Yeung, S. S. (2016). Internal and external loci-of-hope predict use of individual and collaborative learning strategies: Evidence from university students in four Asian cities. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25 (3), 365-376.
Block, J. H. (1983). Differential premises arising from differential socialization of the sexes: Some conjectures. Child Development, 54, 1335–1354.
Borges, M. S.; Santos, M. B. C. & Pinheiro, T. G. (2015). Social representations about religion and spirituality. Rev Bras Enferm, 68(4), 524-31.
Bradford, G. & Keller, S. (2016). Achievement and wellbeing. In G. Fletcher (Ed.), The Routledge handbook for the philosophy of wellbeing (pp.795-803). London: Routledge.
Brence, I. & Rivza, B. (2012). Quality evaluation of higher education programs: process and challenges in Latvia. Proceeding of International Conference of Management, knowledge and learning international, 787-79.
Brown, J. (1995). The Elements of Language Curriculum. Boston: 
          MA: Heinle and Heinle.
Buss, D. M. (1990). Evolutionary social psychology: Prospects and pitfalls. Motivation & Emotion, 14(4), 265-286.
Chooto, N. (1988). Program evaluation. Bangkok: Thammasan.
Esteve, E. B. (2008). Well-being and Performance in Academic Settings: The Predicting Role of Self-efficacy. Unpublished doctoral thesis. University of Kentucky.
Fagot, B. I.; Rodgers, C. S. & Leinbach, M. D. (2000). Theories of gender socialization. In T. Eckes, & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), the Developmental Social Psychology of Gender (pp. 65-89). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Filho, W. L.; Jabbour, Ch, J. Ch. & Pretorious, R. W. (2016). Evaluation and program planning in sustainable development. Evaluation & Program Planning, 54, 121-2.
Foroozandeh, E.; Riazi, A. M. & Sadighi, F. (2008). TEFL program Evaluation at Master’s level in Iran. Quarterly Teaching English Language & Literature Society of Iran, 2(6), 71-100.
Henrich, J.; Heine, S. J. & Norenzayan, A. (2010). Most people are not WEIRD. Nature, 466, 29.
Isaac, S. & Michael, W. B. (1990). Handbook in research and evaluation (2nded). San Diego, CA: EdITS.
Jacobs, F. (1988). The five-tiered approach to evaluation: Context and implementation, in: Weiss, H. & F. Jacobs (Eds.), Evaluating family programs (pp. 36-68). Aldine DeGruyter, New York.
Ji, M.; Tao, L. & Zhu, T. (2016). Piloting forgiveness education: a comparison of the impact of two brief forgiveness education programmes among Chinese college students. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25 (3),483-492.
Kamrule Hasan, M. (2004). A linguistic study of English language Curriculum at the secondary level in Bangladesh. http://www.languageinindia.com/aug2004/hasandissertation1.html
King, R. B. & Ganotice, F. A. (2015). Does family obligation matter for your motivation, engagement, and well-being? It depends on your self-construal. Personality & Individual Differences, 86, 243–248.
Kristjansson, K. (2012). Positive psychology and positive education: Old wine in new battles? Educational Psychologist, 47, 86–105.
Lindholm, J. A. (2004). The Role of Faculty in Students' Spiritual Development. Journal of College and Character, 5(3).
Linley, P. A.; Maltby, J.; Wood, A. M.; Joseph, S.; Harrington, S.; Peterson, C. et al (2007). Character strengths in the United Kingdom: The VIA Inventory of Strengths. Personality & Individual Differences, 43, 341–351.
MacIntyre, P. D. (2016). So Far So Good: An overview of positive psychology and its contributions to SLA. In D. Gabryś-Barker, & D. Gałajda (Eds.), Positive psychology perspectives on foreign language learning and teaching (pp. 3-20). New York: Springer.
MacIntyre, P. & Mercer, S. (2014). Introducing positive psychology to SLA. Studies in Second Language Learning & Teaching, 4 (2), 153-172.
Maulana, R.; Helms-Lorenz, Y.; Irnidayanti, M. & van der Grift, W. (2016). Autonomous motivation in the Indonesian classroom: Relationship with teacher behavior through the lens of self-determination theory. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25 (3), 441-451.
Miljković, D. & Rijavec, M. (2008). What makes us happy: Stenghts of mind, strengths of heart or self-control? In M. Cindrić, V. Domović, & M. Matijević (Eds.), Pedagogy and the knowledge society (pp.241-250). Zagreb: Učiteljski fakultet.
Ortmann, A. & Tichy, L. K. (1999). Gender differences in the laboratory: evidence from prisonerís dilemma games. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 39, 327-339.
Oxford, R. (2014). What we can learn about strategies, language learning, and life from two extreme cases: The role of well-being theory. Studies in Second Language Learning & Teaching, 4(4). 593-615.
Oxford, R. L. & Cuéllar, L. (2014). Positive psychology in cross-cultural narratives: Mexican students discover themselves while learning Chinese. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 4, 173-203.
Padavic, I. & Reskin, B. F. (2002). Women and men at work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
Pallant, J. (2007). A step-by-step guide to data analysis suing SPSS (3thed). NY: Open University Press.
Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A hand-book and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Salzmann, Z. (1998). Language, Culture and Society: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. USA: Westview Press.
Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Atria/Simon & Schuster.
Seligman, M. E. P. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 5-14.
Shimai, S.; Otake, K.; Park, N.; Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. E. P. (2006). Convergence of character strengths in American and Japanese young adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 311-322.
Stankov, L. (2013). Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 25, 1220–1234.
Stufflebeam, D. L. (2007). CIPP evaluation model checklist. Retrieved from www.wmich.edu/evalctr/checklists
Thapar, A.; Collishaw, S.; Pine, D. S. & Thapar, A. K. (2012). Depression in adolescence. The Lancet, 37 (9), 17–23.
The Mental Health Foundation (2013). Building Resilient Communities. Retrieved from: http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/publications/building-resilient-communities/
Villavicencio, F. T. & Bernardo, A. B. (2016). Beyond math anxiety: Positive emotions predict mathematics achievement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25 (3), 415-422.
Wood, W. & Eagly, A. M. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 699–727.
Wood, W.; Rhodes, N. & Whelan, M. (1989). Sex differences in positive well-being: A consideration of emotional style and marital status. Psychological Bulletin, 106 (2), 249-264.
World Health Organization (2011). Preventing suicide: A resource for teachers and other school staff.  Geneva:  World Health Organization.
Worthern, B. R.; Sanders J. R. & Fitzpatrick, J. L. (1997). Program evaluation – Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman, Inc.
Zhang, Y. (2016). Making students happy with wellbeing-oriented education: Case study of a secondary school in China. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25 (3), 463-471.