Developing and Validating Flipped Teaching Method to Improve Students' Deep Learning

Document Type : Original Article



The aim of this study was to develop the Flipped Teaching Method in order to improve students' deep learning. This was an embedded mixed method that included a statistical population of 2340 students of the Faculty of Literature and Humanities as well as 15 professors in the field of Educational Sciences at Bu-Ali Sina University. Given the qualitative phase, 36 students were selected through accidental random sampling method and, given the qualitative phase, 20 students and 5 professors were selected purposefully. In the qualitative and qualitative phases, it was attempted to make use of semi-structured interviews and a researcher-made test, respectively, in order to collect the required data. The validity of the test was confirmed through collecting the experts’ views and its reliability was obtained using Cohen's Kappa Coefficient (89%). Having analyzed the data in the qualitative phase, seven main components were developed for the Flipped Teaching Method, including the flexibility of the environment, learning culture, educational content and activities, teacher as a coach, learner’s activism and accountability, learning as mastery and time management. The internal validity of this model was evaluated by experts and the validity of this model was examined using the developmental methodology. Finally, the findings indicated the positive impacts of the model on students’ deep learning.


پورجمشیدی، مریم و مؤمنی راد، اکبر (1394). درگیر شدن در یادگیری از طریق مدل کلاس وارونه. کنفرانس بین‌المللی آموزش، یادگیری، اشتغال و توسعه پایدار. انجمن مدیریت آموزشی ایران، 35-47.
رحیمی‌دوست، غلامحسین (1392). چارچوب تکیه‌سازی آموزشی اثربخش در محیط یادگیری مشکل‌گشایی مبتنی بر کامپیوتر: به سوی تدوین و اعتباربخشی الگوی تکیه‌گاه سازی آموزشی. رساله دکتری تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
کرمی، خدیجه و شریفی، تینا (1393). آموزش معکوس در تدریس فیزیک. فصلنامه آموزشی رشد فیزیک، 31 (1)، 58.
محدثی، حمیده؛ فیضی، آرام و صافی، رضا (1390). بررسی مقایسه‌ای شاخص‌های تدریس اثربخش از دیدگاه اعضای هیئت علمی و دانشجویان دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ارومیه. مجله دانشکده پرستاری و مامایی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ارومیه، 9 (6)، 464-471.
محمودی صاحبی، موسی؛ نصری، صادق و قلی‌نیا قلزم، حمید (1392). شناسایی معیارهایتدریساستادان با تأکید بر آموزش مهندسی. فصلنامه فناوری آموزش، 6 (4)، 315-324.
Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and Cognitive Load in the Flipped Classroom: Definition, Rationale and a Call for Research. Higher Education Research & evelopment, (34) 1, 1–14.
Anderson, T. (2003). Modes of Interaction in Distance Education: Recent developments and research questions. In M. G. Moore & W. G. Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of distance education (pp. 129-144). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Baker, J. W. (2000). The “Classroom Flip”: Using Web Course Management Tools to Become the Guide by the Side. 11th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning. (9-17). Available online at
Bates, S., & Galloway, R. (2012). The Inverted Classroom in a Large Enrolment Introductory Physics Course: A Case Study. HEA STEM Learning and Teaching Conference. Doi: 10.11120.
Bedna, A. K.; Cunningham, D; Duffy, T. M.; & Perry, J. D. (1995). Theory into practice: How do we link? In T. M. Duffy & D. H. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A Conversation (pp. 17-34). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Blu, I. & Shamir-Inbal, T. (2017). Re-designed Flipped Learning Model in an Academic Course: The Role of Co-creation and Co-Regulation. Journal of Computers & Education, 115, 69-81.
Blair, E.; Maharaj, C., & Primus, S. (2015). Performance and Perception in the Flipped Classroom. Education & Information Technologies, 1–18. Retrieved from: DOI 10.1007/s10639-015-9393-5.
Bruner, J. S. (1966). Toward a Theory of Instruction. New York: W.W. Norton Company, Inc.
Brown, R. (2000). Theory about the Process of Community-Building in Distance Learning Classes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University of Nebraska. Lincoln. UMI number: 9973587.
Chen, C. M. & Wu, C. H. (2015). Effects of Different Video Lecture Types on Sustained Attention, Emotion, Cognitive Load, and Learning Performance. Computers & Education, 80, 108-121.
Del Arco, I., & Camats, R. (2015). Teachers' training in" flipped classroom. Escuela, Monographic, 16-17.
Flores, O.; Del-Arco, I. & Silva, P. (2016). The Flipped Classroom Model at the University: Analysis Based on Professors’ and Students’ Assessment in the Educational Field. Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13 (21), 34-44.
Fosnot, C. T. & Perry, R. S. (2005). Constructivism: A psychological theory of learning. In C. T. Fosnot (Ed.), Constructivism: Theory, Perspectives and Practice (2nd edition) (pp. 8-38). New York: Teacher's College Press.
Fulton, K. (2012). Upside down and inside out: Flip your classroom to improve student learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39 (8), 12–17.
Hannafin, M. J. (1989). Interaction Strategies and Emerging Instructional Technologies: Psychological Perspectives. Canadian Journal of Educational Communication, 18 (3), 167-179.
Harris, L. I. (2012). Secondary Teachers’ Conceptions of Student Engagement: Engagement in Learning or in Schooling. Teaching & Teacher Education, 27 (2), 376-386.
Holley, D. & Oliver, M. (2012). Student Engagement and Blended Learning: Portraits of Risk. Computers & Education, 54 (3), 693–700.
Jaster, R. W. (2013). Inverting the Classroom in College Algebra: An Examination of Student Perceptions and Engagement and Their Effects on Grade Outcomes. PhD Thesis, Texas State University-San Marcos.
Johnson, J. & Mighten, A. (2005). A Comparison of Teaching Strategies: Lecture Notes Combined with Structured Group Discussion Versus Lecture Only. Journal Nurs Education, 44 (7), 319.
King, A. (1993). From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side. College Teaching, 41 (1), 30-35.
Meskill, C. (2005). Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language Learning with Computer. State University of New York at Albany. Language Learning & Technology, 9 (1), 5-46.
Moraros, J.; Islam, A.; Yu, S.; Banow, R., & Schindelka, B. (2015). Flipping for Success: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Novel Teaching Approach in a Graduate Level Setting. BMC Medical Education, 15 (1), 1–10.
Palloff, R. M. & Pratt, K. (2011). The Excellent Online Instructor: Strategies for Professional Development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Pierce, R. & Fox, J. (2012). PharmD Vodcasts and Active-Learning Exercises in a “Flipped Classroom” Model of a Renal Pharmacotherapy Module. Am J Pharm Educ, 76 (10), 196.
Reigeluth, C., & Frick, T. (1999). Formative Research: A Methodology for Creating and Improving Design Theory. In C. M. Reigeluth, Instructional design theories and moeducational communications and technology (pp. 665-692). Nedels: a new paradigm of instructional theory (Volume II) (pp. 633-652). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sims, R. (1999). Interactivity on stage: Strategies for Learner-Designer Communication. Educational Technology, 15 (3), 257-272.
Simons, K. D. & Klein, J. D. (2007). The Impact of Scaffolding and Student Achievement Levels in a Problem-based Learning Environment. Instructional Science, 35 (1), 41-72.
Strayer, J. F (2012). How Learning in an Inverted Classroom Influences Cooperation, Innovation and Task Orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15, 171-193.
Tourón, J., & Santiago, R. (2015). Flilpped Learning Model and the Development of Talent at School. Revista de Educación, 368, 196–231.
Tucker, B. (2012). The Flipped Classroom. Education Next, 12 (1), 82-83.
 Wiginton, B. (2013). Flipped Instruction: An Investigation into the Effect of Learning Environment on Student Self-efficacy, Learning style, and Academic Achievement in Analgebra in classroom. PhD Thesis Philosophy. Department of Educational Leadership, Policy, and Technology. The University of Alabama. UMI Number: 3612166.