Pathology of Scholastic Aptitude Search in Iran (Systematic Review of Literature in the Last Three Decades)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. student in Assessment and Measurment, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Education, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



Objective: Aptitude search, especially Scholastic Aptitude (SA), has always been a serious challenge for parents, counselors, teachers and even students themselves. Due to the wider and more specialized jobs and the creation of new knowledge, the need to identify specialized aptitudes for greater academic and professional success increases? For this reason, numerous studies have addressed the issue of searching and evaluating scholastic and professional aptitudes. However, despite the undeniable importance of this issue, there is still no review on it in Iran. In this paper a systematic review of the literature related to Scholastic Aptitude Search (SAS) in Iran from 1991 to 2021 was conducted and related studies were thoroughly reviewed and analyzed.
Methods: Using systematic review, keywords include aptitude search, SAS, aptitude search pathology, methods of SAS, SAS strengths and weaknesses, regardless of time constraints in Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, Noormags, Civilica and Irandoc databases were searched, of which 817 documents were retrieved and then 32 articles were selected for review and analysis using the PRISMA evaluation checklist. Data analysis was performed using Altheide method.
Results: Less than 5% of aptitude search studies in Iran were SAS, and these studies do not provide a definition of SA or SAS. Most studies have equated scholastic aptitude with concepts such as intelligence (18%), desire, attitude, and interest (12%), superior talent (12%), creativity (6%), talent (5.5%), or academic achievement (5.5%), The instruments used to measure SA included a researcher-made questionnaire based on the Likert scale (28%), tests of academic achievement (10.5%), Gardner intelligence (10.5%), Holland inclination (10.5%), General talent tests (5%), use of course scores (5%), Woodcock-Johnson test (5%), or a combination of several psychological tests (10.5%). Studies in this field are aimed at investigating the effective factors (related factors) on SA (28%), designing a children's talent search center (22%), examining the psychometric properties and standardization of the talent search test (16%), development and standardization of tools for measuring SA (9%), SAS using fuzzy systems (9%), comparing academic aptitude of different groups (7%), or identifying important components and indicators in SA (9%), done.
Conclusion: There is a serious imbalance in the study of different types of talent, so that most studies have addressed the issue of sports talent and SA has been neglected. Among the challenges in the field of SAS in Iran are: the lack of a clear and unified definition of SA and SAS in specialized and academic texts, the use of intelligence and creativity tests instead of SA tests, assuming talent, Intelligence, creativity, desire, attitude and academic achievement with SA, lack of a specific trustee for aptitude search, lack of a legal authority to approve the tests used for SAS, lack of standardization of translated SA search tests, lack of centers Standard and in accordance with scientific principles, lack of local tests in the field of SA, lack of monitoring of the activities of talent centers by legal authorities, lack of attention of the official Iranian education system to the issue of SA, lack of a valid official test center and test standardization Psychological problems in the country, the lack of a clear, objective and legal protocol on the characteristics of an SAS and child aptitude search center. Therefore, considering the importance of SAS and the issue of identifying and cultivating scholastic and elite aptitudes, this issue demands more attention from the educational and training authorities of the country.


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