Prerequisites, Facilitators and Barriers to Student Engagement in Iranian Universities of Agricultural Sciences: Qualitative Research

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph. D Graduate in Agricultural Education, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Khuzestan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan. Khuzestan, Iran

3 Professor, Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education. Tehran, Iran



Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the prerequisites, facilitators and barriers to academic engagement of students in Iranian agricultural higher education.
Methods: This research has a qualitative approach that was carried out by phenomenological method. Participants in this study included 16 university administrators and faculty members and 22 third and fourth undergraduate students from the Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Tehran, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Khuzestan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources and the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Gonbad Kavous University which have been selected based on purposive sampling with maximum diversity. The data collection tool was a semi-structured in-depth interview and the data analysis was performed based on Colaizzi’s seven-step method.
Results: By analyzing the interview notes, 182 conceptual propositions were identified. Findings include six main themes related to the prerequisites for student engagement, including student-centered policy-making equipments, efficient supervision and management, personal characteristics, active citizenship, and culture- promotion; Six main themes related to facilitators including financial system, dynamic executive system, cognitive factors, evaluation system, information system and communication; And five main themes related to barriers, including individual, structural / educational, cultural, social, and economic barriers, were categorized.
Conclusion: According to the results the model based on prerequisites, facilitators and barriers for student engagement in the university can pave the way for university planners to take the right, fast, systematic and also without haste steps to in order to provide prerequisites, increase of facilitators and remove existing obstacles.


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