پدیدارنگاری تفکر انتقادی دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی با تأکید بر سطوح "توضیح دادن" و "تحلیل کردن" از دیدگاه پل و الدر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد گروه روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه الزهرا،تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه الزهرا،تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه مشاوره، دانشکدۀ روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

10.22034/emes.2021.248191

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: امروزه جایگاه تفکر انتقادی در پیشبرد موفقیت تحصیلی و شغلیِ دانشجویان، اهمیتی دوچندان یافته است و بر همین اساس بسیاری از مؤسسات آموزش عالی، تقویت تفکر انتقادی دانشجویان را یکی از اهداف نهایی خود قلمداد می‌کنند. پژوهش حاضر، با هدف توصیف ادراک دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی از سطح دوم «توضیح دادن موضوع متن» و سوم «تحلیل منطق متن» تفکر انتقادی بر مبنای چارچوب پل و الدر (2012) صورت گرفت.
روش پژوهش: این پژوهش براساس رویکرد کیفی و روش پدیدارنگاری انجام شد. مشارکت‌کنندگان 15 نفر، دانشجوی سال اول، دوم و فارغ‌التحصیلان رشتۀ روان‌شناسی تربیتی دورۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد دانشگاه الزهرا (س) در سال‌های تحصیلی 97-1395 بودند که براساس تمایل داوطلبانه، در این پژوهش شرکت کردند. ابتدا از آن‌ها خواسته شد تا بخشی از متن کتاب "هنر عشق‌ورزیدن" را بخوانند و سپس به سؤال‌های موجود در سطح دوم و سوم تفکر انتقادی پاسخ دهند. اطلاعات، بر مبنای روش استقرایی تحلیل شدند. طبقه‌های توصیفی با افق‌های درونی و بیرونی و نیز فضای نتیجه ترسیم شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج پژوهش بیانگر هشت طبقۀ توصیفی شامل؛ توضیح دادن موضوع متن بر مبنای راهبرد بسط معنایی، به‌کارگیری استدلال قیاسی، یادآوری دانش ادبی پیشین، تحلیل متن با توجه به مؤلفه‌های تفکر انتقادی، تشخیص نامناسب مؤلفه‌های تفکر انتقادی، پرسش‌های اکتشافی در مقابل پرسش‌های غیر اکتشافی،  بیان کلی از محتوای متن و غلبۀ دیدگاه فرد بر نویسنده است.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج، به‌منظور ارتقاء سطوح تفکر انتقادی دانشجویان توصیه می‌شود، آموزش مؤلفه‌های تفکر انتقادی و تقویت مهارت خواندن انتقادی مورد توجه سیاست‌گذاران نظام آموزش عالی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A phenomenography of critical thinking of graduate students with an emphasis on the levels of “Explicating” and “Analyzing” of Paul and Elder's perspective

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra Moradi Najaf Abadi 1
  • Maryam Mohsenpour 2
  • Ali reza Kiamanesh 3
1 department of Educational Psychology, education and psychology faculty, Alzahra university, Tehran,Iran
2 department of Educational Psychology, education and psychology faculty, Alzahra university, Tehran,Iran
3 Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objective: Nowadays, the importance of critical thinking in promoting students’ academic and career
success has increased. Therefore, many higher educational institutions
consider reinforcing critical thinking as one of their ultimate goals. The present study was conducted with the aim of describing the graduate students ' perception of the second level “explicating the thesis of a text “and third level “analyzing the Logic of Text” of critical thinking based on Paul and Elder framework (2012).  
Methods:         This research was conducted based on a qualitative approach, and phenomenography method. 15 voluntary Participants were from first year, second year and graduated educational psychology students of at master level from Alzahra University, in the academic year of 2016-2018. First of all, they were requested to read a part of the book entitled “Art of Loving” and answer to the questions of second and third level of critical thinking. Then, data were analyzed based on the inductive method. The categories description was plotted with internal and external horizons and outcome space.
Results: The results showed eight descriptive category including, explicating the thesis of a text based on the elaboration strategy, application of deductive reasoning, remembering of prior literacy knowledge, text analysis with regard to the components of critical thinking, inappropriate diagnosis of critical thinking components, exploratory questions vs no exploratory questions, general expression of content of text and overcoming the person's vision on author vision.
Conclusion: Therefore, to promote the critical thinking of students, it is recommended the instructing of critical thinking components and strengthening critical reading skills be considered by policy makers of higher education.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Explicating
  • Analyzing
  • Critical Thinking
  • phenomenography
  • Graduated Students
  • Paul and Elder Framework
American College Testing Program (ACT). (1989). Report on the technical characteristics of CAAP; Pilot year 1: 1988–89.  IA: Author.
Athari, Z., Sharif, S., Nasr, A., & Nematbakhsh, M. (2012). Evaluation of students' critical thinking skills in Isfahan university and Isfahan university of medical sciences for two sequence semesters: critical thinking, the lost ring in curriculums. Iranian journal of medical education, 11(9), 1040-1049. ]In Persian[.
Bartlett, D., & Cox, P. D. (2002). Measuring change in students' critical thinking ability: implications for health care education. Journal of allied health, 31(2), 64-69.
Butler, H. A. (2012). Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Predicts Real-World Outcomes of Critical Thinking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(5), 721-729.  https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.2851.
Cottrell, S. (2017). Critical thinking skills: Effective analysis, argument and reflection. Palgrave Macmillan.
Davidson, B. W., & Dunham, R. A. (1997). Assessing EFL student progress in critical thinking with the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT) Journal, 19(1), 43-57.
Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2014). An integrated critical thinking framework for the 21st century. Thinking Skills and Creativity12, 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2013.12.004.
Din, M. (2020). Evaluating university students’ critical thinking ability as reflected in their critical reading skill: A study at bachelor level in Pakistan. Thinking Skills and Creativity35, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100627.
Daud, N. M., & Husin, Z. (2004). Developing critical thinking skills in computer‐aided extended reading classes. British Journal of Educational Technology, 35(4), 477-487.‏ https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0007-1013.2004.00405.x.
Ennis, R. H., & Weir, E. (1985). The Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. Midwest Publications.
Ennis, R. H., Millman, J., & Tomko, T. N. (1985). Cornell Critical Thinking Tests Level X and Level Z Manual (3th ed.). Midwest Publications.
Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2006). 25 days to better thinking & better living: a guide for improving every aspect of your life. Prentice Hall Professional.
Educational Testing Service. (2010). ETS proficiency profile user’s guide. NJ: Author.
Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. The California Academic press.
Fisher, A. (2011). Critical thinking: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.
Gharib, M., Rabieian, M., Salsali, M., Hajizadeh, E., Sabouri Kashani, A., & Khalkhali, H. (2009). Critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions in freshmen and senior students of health care management. Iranian journal of medical education, 9(2), 125- 135. ]In Persian[.
Ghazimoradi, H. (2018). Introduction to Critical Thinking. Akhtaran. ]In Persian[.
Hajare, A., Surve, S. & Patankar, P. (2016). Developing Critical Reading Skills for Active Citizenship through Constructivist Approach. Aayushı Internatıonal Interdıscıplınary Research Journal, 46-50.
Hasanpour, M., Hasanzadeh, A., Ghaedi Heidari, F., & Bagheri, M. (2015). Critical Thinking Skills of Nursing Students. Iran Journal of Nursing. 28(93 and 94), 22-31. https://doi.org/10.29252/ijn.28.93.94.22. ]In Persian[.
Kohzadi, H., Azizmohammadi, F., & Samadi, F. (2014). Is there a relationship between critical thinking and critical reading of literary texts: A case study at Arak University (Iran). International Letters of Social and Humanistic Science33, 63-76.  https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILSHS.33.63.
Liu, O. L., & Roohr, K. C. (2013). Investigating 10-year trends of learning outcomes at community colleges (Research Report 13-34). Educational Testing Service.
Lau, J.Y. (2015). Metacognitive education: Going beyond critical thinking. In M. Davies & R. Barnett (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of critical thinking in higher education (pp. 373-389). Palgrave Macmillan.
Marton, F (1988). Phenomenography: A Research Approach to Investigating Different Understandings of Reality. In R.R. Sherman & R.B. webb (Eds.), Qualitative Research in Education: Focus and Methods (pp. 140-160). Falmer.
Mutahhari, M. (2002). understanding Islamic Sciences, First volume, Logic-Philosophy. Sadra. ]In Persian[.
Neshat, N., & Hosseini Nazar, M. (2018). Evaluation of Critical Thinking Skill of Librarianship and Information students Case study: Islamic Azad Universities of Tehran. Journal of academic librarianship and information research, 52(1), 35-56.] In Persian[.
Oliveras, B., Márquez, C., & Sanmartí, N. (2013). The use of newspaper articles as a tool to develop critical thinking in science classes. International Journal of Science Education35(6), 885-905.
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2009). The miniature guide to critical thinking: Concepts & tools (6th ed.). Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2012). The international Critical Thinking Reading & Writing Test (How to Assess close Reading and Substantive Writing) (2th ed.). Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2013). International Critical Thinking essay Test. Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking/store/products/international-critical-thinking-essay-test/185.
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2014). Critical thinking: Tools for taking charge of your professional and personal life. Pearson Education.
Ralston, P. A., & Bays, C. L. (2013). Enhancing critical thinking across the undergraduate experience: An exemplar from engineering. American Journal of Engineering Education, 4(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.19030/ajee.v4i2.8228.
Rezaei, R., Saatsaz,S.,  Sharif Nia, H., Molookzadeh, S.,& Beheshti, Z. (2014). Evaluation of Nursing Students,
Critical Thinking Skills in Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Medical Education Journal. 2(1), 29- 34. http://mededj.ir/article-1-49-fa.html. ]In Persian[.
Rabbani parsa, E., Mesrabadi, J., & yarmohammadzade, P. (2018). Build and Standardization of Critical Thinking. Quarterly of Educational Measurement, 9(34), 91-114.  https://doi.org/10.22054/jem.2019.38198.1864. ]In Persian[.
Sharifi, F., Emadzadeh, A., & Sharifi, M. (2016). A Survey on Critical Thinking skills of Residents of the Medical School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Zanko Journal of Medical Sciences Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 17(54), 73-90. ]In Persian[.
Salimi, j. (2015). A Phenomenography of Teacher-Student Instructional Interactions. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 10(38), 5-36. https://doi.org/ 20.1001.1.17354986.1394.10.38.1.6.] In Persian[.
Saif, A. A. (2017). Modern educational psychology. Psychology of learning and instruction (7th ed.). Doran.
] In Persian[.
Secretariat of the Medical, faculty of medicine Education development office (2011). Perspective document for reviewing the general medicine course of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Iran, Ministry of Health, therapy and Medical Education.] In Persian[.
Secretariat of the General Medical Education Council (2015). Document of the competencies of the graduates of the doctoral course in general medicine in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Supreme Council of planning in Medical Sciences. Iran, Ministry of Health, therapy and Medical Education. ]In Persian[.
Thompson, A., Ralston, P., & Lloyd Hieb, J.2012) , June 10 – 13) Engaging Freshman engineers using the Paul-Elder framework for Critical Thinking [Paper presentation]. 2012 American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference & Exposition. San Antonio, Texas. https://peer.asee.org/21287.
Toppin, I. N., & Chitsonga, S. (2016). Critical thinking skills and academic maturity: Emerging results from a five-year Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) study. Journal of Inquiry and Action in Education7(2), 81-93. https://digitalcommons.buffalostate.e du/jiae/vol7/iss2/4.
Watson, G., & Glaser, E. M. (1980). Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, forms A and B manual. The Psychological Corporation.
Welch, K. C., Hieb, J., & Graham, J. (2015). A Systematic Approach to Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Electrical and Computer Engineering Undergraduates. American Journal of Engineering Education, 6(2), 113-124. https://doi.org/10.19030/ajee.v6i2.9506.  
Yousefi, S., & Mohammadi, M. (2016). Critical thinking and reading comprehension among postgraduate students: The case of gender and language proficiency level. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(4), 802- 807. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0704.23.