Comparative Evaluation of Macro-higher Education Policies of Selected Countries

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD. student of Economics and Finance Management of Higher Education, Department of Educational Administration and Planning, Faculty of Psychology and Education, The University of Tehran

2 Associate Prof. Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education (IRPHE), Iran


Objective: The authors of this study seek to make a comparative assessment of macro-higher education policies in six countries.Methods: This qualitative research has been done using George Brady’s comparative study method. Based on this, six countries (the Netherlands, France, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, and Saudi Arabia) were chosen through a judicative method by Pundits according to the long-term study plan of forty countries at this stage. Taking notes from international documents, reports, articles, and all available documents was the means of gathering data for this research. The stages of this research are divided into four sections: description, interpretation, juxtaposition, and comparison.Results: policies in the Netherlands is the intertwining of quality assurance policies with internationalization. In France, emphasis is placed on policies to attract international students, especially from developing countries. In Singapore, the establishment of a world-class university is emphasized. In Malaysia, innovation in the financial system of universities is becoming a hub for regional higher education. In South Africa, equality, accessibility, and justice are highlighted, and in Saudi Arabia, corporate governance of higher education is focused on. The common points of macro-policies focused more on participatory governance, increasing university independence, university financial development, and performance-based allocation, adapting the higher education system to the labor market, and increasing academic research funding.Conclusion: In examining the macro-policies of the target countries, an intelligent combination of attention to national needs and in line with global trends was observed. In the last two years, due to the Covid-19 crisis turns towards digitalization of e-learning education, as well as the importance of providing financial resources and special financial aid to students are prominent. This flexibility, intelligence, and acceptance of change must also be at the forefront of Iran's higher education policy-making system.


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