Identifying and Prioritizing the Most Important Influencing Factors Leading Students to Go to Private Institutions for University Entrance Exam Preparation

Document Type : Original Article



The aim of the research is to identify and prioritize the most important affecting factors that lead students to approach private institutions for University Entrance Exam Preparation.  According to its objectives, this is an applied research conducted using mixed (qualitative and quantitative) and exploratory methods. The population of the qualitative part includes the institutions’ officials and experts of educational system, which make up a sample of 15 people in a purposeful snowball method, and, in the quantitative part, 119 were selected by means of accessible sampling of students in Tehran’s private Institutions. In the qualitative part, the researchers employed semi-structured interviews to collect the data. Then, through the content analysis of the interviews, the most important concepts (according to the goals) were detected and then assessed applying a researcher-made questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was calculated through the analysis of the confirmatory factor and the reliability was calculated 86/0 by means of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. In the qualitative part, the data analysis software (Nvivo) was used and, in the quantitative part, SPSS was applied to analyze the data. According to review literature and the qualitative and quantitative findings, the most important reasons for volunteers to go to private institutions  in order to get ready for University entrance exam is their dissatisfaction with the results of previous years, and lack of effectiveness of schools’ curriculum and inadequate formal education 


آراسته، حمیدرضا (1382). دانش و آموزش عالی: نقش آموزش عالی در چشم‌انداز توسعه ایران 1404. رهیافت، 31، 32-42.
ایران فورم. (1388).
بری، مارک (1392). اثرات نامطلوب تدریس خصوصی (ابعاد، تبعات و واکنش دولت‌ها)؛ ترجمه حسن آسایش، تهران: آوای نور.
حسینی، م، (1388). مواجهه با کنکور، خبرگزاری موج.
خلاقی، علی‌اصغر و حج‌فروش، احمد (1391). بررسی تأثیر کنکور بر اهداف آموزشی در گذر از آموزش متوسطه به آموزش عالی، تعلیم و تربیت، 112، 67-98.
عظیمی مروی (1390). تب و تاب، از کنکور ۹۰ تا ۹۱. روزنامه خراسان (26/5/90)، شماره 17911.
فراستخواه، مقصود (1387). بررسی چگونگی ارتقای کمی و کیفی دسترسی به آموزش عالی در ایران، آموزش عالی ایران، 1 (2)، 122-95.
معتمدی، عبدالله (1382). اثرات کنکور بر شرایط روانی راه‌نیافتگان به دانشگاه. تهران: مؤسسه پژوهشی برنامه‌ریزی درسی و نوآوری آموزشی.
Ashley, L. D.; Mcloughlin, C.; Aslam, M.; Engel, J.; Wales, J.; Rawal, S. et al (2014). The role and impact of private schools in developing countries. Rigorous Literature Review.
Bergman, M. M. (2008). Advances in Mixed Methods Research: Theories and Applications. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Buchmann, C. (1999). The state and schooling in Kenya: Historical development and current challenges. Africa Today, 46 (1), 95-116. doi:10.1353/at.2003.0072
Cheo, R. & Quah, E. (2005). Mothers, Maids and Tutors: An Empirical Evaluation of Their Effect on Children’s Academic Grades in Singapore. Education Economics 13 (3), 269–285.
Chun, S. et al (2003). A study of attitudes influencing the level of satisfaction with public education. The collection of treatises of management education. 30.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. Sixth edition. First published by Routledge Crocker J. (2002). The costs of seeking selfesteem. Journal of Social Issues, 58 (3), 597-615.
Creswell, J. W; Plano, V. L. & Clark; M. L. Guttmann and Hanson, E. E. (2003). Advanced Mixed Methods Research Design. In Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (Eds.), Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research (pp. 209–240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dang, H. & Rogers, H. (2008). The growing phenomenon of private tutoring: does it deepen human capital, widen inequalities, or waste resources? The World Bank Research Observer, 23 (2), 161-200.
DeAngelis, Corey A. & Shakeel, M. Danish (2017). Does Private Schooling Improve International Test Scores? An Instrumental Variables Fixed Effects Analysis of the Impact of Private Schooling on PISA Scores (January 17, 2017). EDRE Working Paper No. 2017-02. Available at SSRN:
Hanushek, E. A. & Woessmann, L. (2017). School Resources and Student Achievement: A Review of Cross-Country Economic Research. In Cognitive Abilities and Educational Outcomes (pp. 149-171). Springer International Publishing.
Hyun, J.; Lee, J. & Lee, H. (2002). A Study on the Education fever of Korean parents. Seoul: Korean Educational Development Institutes.
Kim, H. (2004). Analyzing the structure of variables affecting on private tutoring expense. The Journal of Educational Administration, 22 (1), 27-45.
Kim, S. & Lee, J. (2010). Private Tutoring and Demand for Education in South Korea. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 58 (2), 259-296.
Kulpoo, D. (1998). The quality of education: some policy suggestions based on a survey of schools in Mauritius. SACMEQ Policy Research: Report No. 1, Paris: UNESCO/IIEP.
Kwan-terry, A. (1991). The economics of language in Singapore: students’ use of extracurricular language lessons. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 2 (1), 69-89.
Lee, C. J. (2005). Perspective: Korean Education Fever and Private Tutoring. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 29 (1), 99 - 107.
Lee, J.; Kim, Y. & Yoon, C. (2004). The Effects of Pre-class Tutoring on Student Achievement, Challenges and Implications for Public Education in Korea. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 1 (1), 25-42.
Lee, Ji Yun (2013). Private tutoring and its impact on students' academic achievement, formal schooling, and educational inequality in Korea. Columbia University Academic Commons,
Lewis, L. & Patrinos, H. A. (2012). Impact evaluation of private sector participation in education. The World Bank: CfBT Education Trust.
Mischo, C. & Haag, L. (2002). Expansion and Effectiveness of Private Tutoring. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 17 (3), 263–273.
Morrisroe, J. (2014). Literacy Changes Lives 2014: A New Perspective on Health, Employment and Crime. National Literacy Trust.
Moumné, Rolla & Saudemont, Charlotte (2015). Overview of the role of private providers in education in light of the existing international legal framework: investments in private education: undermining or contributing to the full development of the human right to education? Unesco Working Papers on Education Policy.
Polydorides, G. (1986). The determinants of educational achievement at the end of secondary schooling: the case of Greece. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, 16-20 April.
Rohlen, T. P. & Letendre, G. K. (1996). Conclusion themes in the Japanese culture of learning. In: Rohlen, T. P. & Letndre, G. K. (Eds). Teaching and Learning in Japan, pp. 369-376. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Salili, F. (1999). Accepting personal responsibility for learning. In: D. A. Watking, D. A. & Biggs, J. B. (Eds). The Chinese Learner: cultural, psychological and contextual influences, pp, 85-105. Hong Kong, Comparative Education Research Center, University of Hong Kong.
Silova, I. & Bray, M. (2006). The hidden marketplace: Private tutoring in former socialist countries. In Silova, Iveta; Virginija Budiene & Mark Bray. (Eds). Education in a Hidden Marketplace: Monitoring of Private Tutoring. New York: Open Society Institute.
Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research, First Edition, Sage Publication Inc.
Wiske, M. S. & Spicer, D. E. (2010). Teacher Education as Teaching for Understanding with New Technologies, International Encyclopedia of Education, 635-641.