Developing the Framework of Entrepreneurship Education in Schools Through the Meta-Synthesis Approach

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD in Entrepreneurship Management, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professorof Entrepreneurship Management, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Entrepreneurship Management, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor of Business Management, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Iran

5 Associate Professor of Entrepreneurship Management, Haskin School of Business, University of Calgary, kanada



Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop an entrepreneurship education framework in schools, which can be used as a basis for planning the country's education managers.
Methods: this research is practical and data collection and analysis has been done based on meta-synthesis approach
Results: In this research, according to the meta-synthesis approach, 759 valid published articles were investigated between 1956 and 2021.
 After refining and controlling the quality of texts, 77 articles were used for coding and analysis.
Conclusion: the extracted codes were synthesized and it led to 51 concepts and eight topics. These topics include: volunteers’ participation in entrepreneurship education, methods of entrepreneurship education, supporting entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship education in other subjects, the acquired skills, the acquired attitudes, the acquired knowledge, and the method of evaluation.


Main Subjects

 Adekiya, Adewale A, and Fatima Ibrahim. 2016. "Entrepreneurship intention among students. The       antecedent role of culture and entrepreneurship training and development."  The international journal of management education 14 (2):116-132.
Aghajani, Hassan Ali, Farajollahi, Mehran, Faraj Elahi, Ganjeh Khor, Ziba (2011), The role of education on the entrepreneurial spirit of students in vocational vocational schools for girls in Mazandaran province, Journal of Women's Psychological Social Studies, 9 (3), 111-137
Ahmadpour Karimabadi, Fariba; Behmai, Leila; Barkat, Gholamhossein (1400). Presenting the model of development of entrepreneurial capabilities in sixth grade female students of Bandar Mahshahr city. 15 (No. 1 - Serial No. 55) 61-95 [Persian]
Athayde, Rosemary. 2009. "Measuring enterprise potential in young people."  Entrepreneurship theory and practice 33 (2):481-500.
Ayele, Seife, Dominic Glover, and Marjoke Oosterom. 2018. "Youth employment and the private sector in Africa."
Azizi, Mohammad, and Roya Mahmoudi. 2019. "Learning outcomes of entrepreneurship education: Entrepreneurship education for knowing, doing, being, and living together."  Journal of Education for Business 94 (3):148-156.
Bacigalupo, M, P Kampylis, Y Punie, and G EntreComp Van den Brande. The entrepreneurship competence framework. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union; 2016. Zugänglich unter.
Bagdy, Lauren M, Vanessa P Dennen, Stacey A Rutledge, Jerrica T Rowlett, and Shannon Burnick. 2018. "Teens and social media: A case study of high school students' informal learning practices and trajectories." Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Social Media and Society.
Barak, M, E Eisenberg, and O Harel. 1995. "‘What's in the Calculator?’An introductory project for technology studies."  Research in Science & Technological Education 13 (2):147-154.
Barma, S., Laferrière, T., Lemieux, B., Massé-Morneau, J., & Vincent, M.-C. (2017). Early stages in building hybrid activity between school and work: the case of PénArt. Journal of Education and Work, 30(6), 669-687.
Beary, Vanessa E. 2013. "The NFTE difference: Examining the impact of entrepreneurship education."  NFTE. com.
Bell, Robin. 2015. "Developing the next generation of entrepreneurs: Giving students the opportunity to gain experience and thrive."  The International Journal of Management Education 13 (1):37-47.
Bernal-Guerrero, A., Cárdenas-Gutiérrez, A. R., & Montoro-Fernández, E. (2020). Basic business knowledge scale for secondary education students. Development and validation with Spanish teenagers. PloS one, 15(7), e0235681.
Birami Erdy, Mohammad, Haydar Torani, Ali Khalkhali, Zohreh Shakibaei, and Esmaeil Kazempour. 2019. "Providing appropriate knowledge management model to improve the quality of learning Students."  Journal of School Administration 7 (3):22-1.
Birdthistle, Naomi, Briga Hynes, and Patricia Fleming. 2007. "Enterprise education programmes in secondary schools in Ireland: A multi‐stakeholder perspective."  Education+ Training.
Blenker, Per, Steffen Korsgaard, Helle Neergaard, and Claus Thrane. 2011. "The questions we care about: paradigms and progression in entrepreneurship education."  Industry and Higher Education 25 (6):417-427.
Bourgeois, Ania, Marie-Pascale Balcon, and Jari Matti Riiheläinen. 2016. "Entrepreneurship Education at School in Europe. Eurydice Report."  Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, European Commission.
Breen, John P. 2004. "Enterprise, entrepreneurship and small business: where are the boundaries?"  International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 1 (1-2):21-34.
Cantor, Nancy, and Catherine A Sanderson. 2003. "12 life task participation and well-being: The importance of taking part in daily life."  Well-being: Foundations of hedonic psychology 230.
Carlin, Bruce Ian, and David T Robinson. 2012. "Financial education and timely decision support: Lessons from Junior Achievement."  American Economic Review 102 (3):305-08.
Chan, Cecilia Ka Yuk, Nai Chi Jonathan Yeung, Peter Kutnick, and Rosanna Yuen-Yan Chan. 2019. "Students’ perceptions of engineers: dimensionality and influences on career aspiration in engineering."  International Journal of Technology and Design Education 29 (3):421-439.
Cheung, CK. 2008. "Practicing Entrepreneurship Education for Secondary Pupils through the Operation of a New Y of a New Year Stall in Hong Kear Stall in Hong K ear Stall in Hong Kong."  The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher 17 (1):15-31.
Chiloane-Tsoka, Germinah Evelyn. 2016. "Factors influencing the Perceptions of youth entrepreneurship development in South Africa."  Problems and perspectives in management (14, Iss. 3 (contin. 2)):556-563.
Chin, Jessica, Abe Zeid, Claire Duggan, and Sagar Kamarthi. 2011. "Reenergizing and reengaging student interest through CAPSULE." 2011 Integrated STEM Education Conference (ISEC).
Cioffi, Noreen, Sadan Kulturel-Konak, and Abdullah Konak. 2014. "“Anything is possible”—Teaching Entrepreneurship in an interactive K-12 workshop." 2014 IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference.
Clayton-Code, Kimberly P. 2012. "Entrepreneurs in Kentucky: exploring secondary students' economic and entrepreneurial dispositions and knowledge."  Citizenship, Social and Economics Education 11 (3):235-249.
Commission, European. 2013. "Entrepreneurship 2020 action plan: reigniting the entrepreneurial spirit in Europe." In.: European Commission, Brussels, Belgium.
Davidson, Ann-Louise, Margarida Romero, and Teresa Quintana. "Macro-dissemination of maker culture: fostering 21st century competencies through an Ideaton."
Draycott, Matthew C, David Rae, and Katie Vause. 2011. "The assessment of enterprise education in the secondary education sector: A new approach?"  Education+ training.
Dyer Jr, W Gibb. 1995. "Toward a theory of entrepreneurial careers."  Entrepreneurship theory and practice 19 (2):7-21.
Fallah Haghighi, N., Mahmoudi, M., & Bijani, M. (2018). Barriers to entrepreneurship development in Iran’s higher education: A qualitative case study. Interchange, 49(3), 353-375.
Fiet, James O. 2001a. "The pedagogical side of entrepreneurship theory."  Journal of business venturing 16 (2):101-117.
Fiet, James O. 2001b. "The theoretical side of teaching entrepreneurship."  Journal of business venturing 16 (1):1-24.
Fisher, Sandra L, Mary E Graham, and Marc Compeau. 2008. "Starting from scratch: Understanding the learning outcomes of undergraduate entrepreneurship education." In Entrepreneurial Learning, 335-362. Routledge.
Floris, Michela, and Daniela Pillitu. 2019. "Improving entrepreneurship education in primary schools: a pioneer project."  International Journal of Educational Management.
Gartner, W. B., & Vesper, K. H. (1994). Experiments in entrepreneurship education: Successes and failures. Journal of business Venturing, 9(3), 179-187.
Gennadyevna Evgrafova, Olga, Albina Anvarovna Bilyalova, and Emma Nikolaevna Gilyazeva. 2019. "Formation of Ideas about Entrepreneurship and the Readiness of High School Students for Business Activities in the Process of Learning a Foreign Language."  Journal of Research in Applied Linguistics 10 (Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Applied Linguistics Issues (ALI 2019) July 19-20, 2019, Saint Petersburg, Russia):482-489.
Gibb, Allan. 2008. "Entrepreneurship and enterprise education in schools and colleges: Insights from UK practice."  International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 6 (2):48.
Gimmon, Eli. 2014. "Mentoring as a practical training in higher education of entrepreneurship."  Education+ Training.
Ghorbani, Zahra (1395). Designing an entrepreneurial school model with a business model approach (master's thesis). Shahed University.
Hahn, Davide, Tommaso Minola, Anita Van Gils, and Jolien Huybrechts. 2017. "Entrepreneurial education and learning at universities: exploring multilevel contingencies."  Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 29 (9-10):945-974.
Hashemi, Sayeda Khadijah, Masoudi Nadushan, Ismat, Golzari, Zainab. (1400). Providing a qualitative model for transforming a technical and vocational school into an entrepreneur school. Educational Innovations, 20(1), 83-108[Persian.]
Hebles, M, D Llanos-Contreras, and C Yaniz. 2019. "Perceived evolution of the entrepreneurial competence based on the implementation of a training program in entrepreneurship and innovation."  REOP 30 (1):9-26.
Herger, Lorraine M, and Mercy Bodarky. 2015. "Engaging students with open source technologies and Arduino." 2015 IEEE Integrated STEM Education Conference.
Huang, Jidong. 2018. "Using business entrepreneurship practices to engage middle school students in STEM learning: Three years' perspective." 2018 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition.
Huang, Jidong, John B Jackson, Pradeep Nair, and Amy Cox-Petersen. 2017. "Using lean start-up approach to integrate engineering education with entrepreneurship practices at middle schools." 2017 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition.
Huayller, Ramiro, Christoph Johann Stettina, Markolf von Ketelhodt, and Bernhard Katzy. 2015. "The kindergarten of entrepreneurship: Developing entrepreneurial spirit and skills through community building at universities." 2015 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology and Innovation/International Technology Management Conference (ICE/ITMC).
Inyang, Benjamin James, and Rebecca Oliver Enuoh. 2009. "Entrepreneurial competencies: The missing links to successful entrepreneurship in Nigeria."  International business research 2 (2):62-71.
Izquierdo, Edgar, and Marc Buelens. 2011. "Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions: the influence of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and attitudes."  International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 13 (1):75-91.
Javidi, Giti, and Ehsan Sheybani. 2018. "K-12 Cybersecurity education, research, and outreach." 2018 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE).
Jerusalem, MA, and N Fitrihana. 2019. "Bussines model canvas of teaching factory fashion design competency Vocational High School in Yogyakarta." Journal of Physics: Conference Series.
Karanassios, Nikolaos, Michail Pazarskis, Konstantinos Mitsopoulos, and Petros Christodoulou. 2006. "EU strategies to encourage youth entrepreneurship: Evidence from higher education in Greece."  Industry and Higher Education 20 (1):43-50.
Kenworthy-U’Ren, Amy, Alexis Petri, and Marilyn L Taylor. 2006. "Components of successful service-learning programs: Notes from Barbara Holland, director of the US National Service-Learning Clearinghouse."  International Journal of Case Method Research and Application 18 (2):120-129.
Kolberg, Eli, Yoram Reich, and Ilya Levin. 2005. "Transforming design education by design." International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference.
Kourilsky, Marilyn L, and Mahtash Esfandiari. 1997. "Entrepreneurship education and lower socioeconomic black youth: An empirical investigation."  The Urban Review 29 (3):205-215.
Kurowska-Pysz, Joanna. 2014. "Shaping of competencies of managers in academic incubators of entrepreneurship in Poland."  Organizacija 47 (1).
Lackéus, Martin. 2013. "Developing entrepreneurial competencies-an action-based approach and classification in education."
Lackéus, Martin. 2015. "Entrepreneurship in education: What, why, when, how."  Background paper.
Lackéus, Martin, Mats Lundqvist, and Karen Williams Middleton. 2011. "Obstacles to establishing venture creation based entrepreneurship education programs." Nordic Academy of Management Meeting (NFF) Conference, Stockholm.
Lensing, Karsten, and Joachim Friedhoff. 2018. "Designing a curriculum for the Internet-of-Things-Laboratory to foster creativity and a maker mindset within varying target groups."  Procedia Manufacturing 23:231-236.
Lindh, Ida, and Sara Thorgren. 2016. "Entrepreneurship education: the role of local business."  Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 28 (5-6):313-336.
Linton, G., & Klinton, M. (2019). University entrepreneurship education: a design thinking approach to learning. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 8(1), 1-11.
Lorz, Michael, and T Volery. 2011. "The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention."  University of St. Gallen.
Lubis, AL, N Jalinus, R Abdullah, and BH Hayadi. 2019. "Project-based entrepreneurship education model in vocational high schools."  International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 8 (6):145-147.
Luis-Rico, Isabel, María-Camino Escolar-Llamazares, De la Torre-Cruz, Alfredo Jiménez, Álvaro Herrero, Carmen Palmero-Cámara, and Alfredo Jiménez-Eguizábal. 2020. "Entrepreneurial interest and entrepreneurial competence among spanish youth: an analysis with artificial neural networks."  Sustainability 12 (4):1351.
Martin, Leisa A. 2017. "Teacher candidates respond to teaching the junior achievement curriculum: An exploratory study."  SAGE Open 7 (1):2158244017697159.
Matlay, Harry. 2008. "The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial outcomes."  Journal of small business and enterprise development.
Mehrabi, Omid (1397). Entrepreneurship in schools. Teacher Development Magazine, 36 (8), 28-30
Mohebzadegan, Yusuf; Jedi Gregori, Javad; Azizi, Mohammad. (1400). Developing a model of entrepreneurship education for school students [Persian].
Morakinyo, Akintolu, and Omotola Akinsola. 2019. "Leadership and entrepreneurship education as a strategy for strengthening youth community engagement in Nigeria: Lessons learnt from jumpstart project."  International Journal of Entrepreneurship 23.
Morales, Carlos E, and Percy Marquina Feldman. 2013. "Entrepreneurial skills, significant differences between Serbian and German entrepreneurs."  Journal of CENTRUM Cathedra: The Business and Economics Research Journal 6 (1):129-141.
Omidi, Jamshid; Hashemi, Seyyed Ahmad; Qaltash, Abbas; Maschinchi, Ali Asghar. (2018). Mental constructions of educational managers from the curriculum of entrepreneurship education for schools. Iranian Curriculum Studies Quarterly. 14(53) 101-134 [Persain.]
Oosterbeek, Hessel, Mirjam Van Praag, and Auke Ijsselstein. 2010. "The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation."  European economic review 54 (3):442-454.
Osterwalder, Alexander, and Yves Pigneur. 2010. Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. Vol. 1: John Wiley & Sons.
Othman, Norasmah, and Siti Hanisah Othman. 2017. "The perceptions of public university students of entrepreneurship education in Malaysia."  International Business Management 11 (4):865-873.
Oyewumi, A, and Sam Olufemi Adeniyi. 2013. "Assessing attitude to and knowledge of entrepreneurship among students with hearing impairment in Nigeria."  African Research Review 7 (3):127-142.
Pelletier, Denis, and Hélène Plourde. 2007. Invitation à la culture entrepreneuriale guide d'élaboration de projet à l'intention du personnel enseignant: Ministère de l'éducation, du loisir et du sport.
Pepin, Matthias, and Étienne St-Jean. 2018. "Assessing the impacts of school entrepreneurial initiatives: a quasi-experiment at the elementary school level."  Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development.
Peterman, Nicole E, and Jessica Kennedy. 2003. "Enterprise education: Influencing students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship."  Entrepreneurship theory and practice 28 (2):129-144.
Pittaway, Luke, and Jason Cope. 2007. "Simulating entrepreneurial learning: Integrating experiential and collaborative approaches to learning."  Management learning 38 (2):211-233.
Popescu, Cristian C, Ionel Bostan, Ioan-Bogdan Robu, Andrei Maxim, and Laura Diaconu. 2016. "An analysis of the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among students: a Romanian case study."  Sustainability 8 (8):771.
Pruett, M. (2012). Entrepreneurship education: Workshops and entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Education for Business, 87(2), 94-101.
Rasmussen, A, and N Nybye. 2013. "Entrepreneurship education: progression model."  Odense: Young Enterprise Denmark. Lokaliseret på dansk den 25.
Rezaei, Bijan; rarity, rarity; Safari, Babazidi, Maryam (2019). Identifying obstacles to entrepreneurship education in Kermanshah schools. 8 (3) 51-66 [persian].
Riyanto, Bambang, and Ratu Ilma Indra Putri. 2019. "Senior High School Mathematics Learning through Mathematics Modeling Approach."  Journal on Mathematics Education 10 (3):425-444.
Rodriguez, Jorge, Steven Butt, and Tycho Fredericks. 2014. "Pre-college activities to promote positive perception of engineering and engineering technology careers." 2014 International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (ICL).
Roth, Wolff-Michael, and Yew-Jin Lee. 2007. "“Vygotsky’s neglected legacy”: Cultural-historical activity theory."  Review of educational research 77 (2):186-232.
Sagar, Helena, Ann-Mari Pendrill, and Anita Wallin. 2012. "Teachers’ perceived requirements for collaborating with the surrounding world."  Nordic Studies in Science Education 8 (3(227-243.
Sai, Xiao, Husaina Banu Kenayathulla, and Saedah Siraj. 2019. "A model for youth entrepreneurship skills of the community-based leadership training for the urban youth in China."  MOJEM: Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management 7 (3):80-98.
Sánchez, José C. 2013. "The impact of an entrepreneurship education program on entrepreneurial competencies and intention."  Journal of small business management 51 (3):447-465.
Sandelowski, Margarete, and Julie Barroso. 2006. Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research: springer publishing company.
Spring, Kimberly, Robert Grimm Jr, and Nathan Dietz. 2008. "Community Service and Service-Learning in America's Schools."  Corporation for National and Community Service.
Steinke, Pamela, and Peggy Fitch. 2007. "Assessing service-learning."  Research & Practice in Assessment 2:24-29.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research techniques.
Sukarieh, Mayssoun, and Stuart Tannock. 2009. "Putting school commercialism in context: A global history of junior achievement worldwide."  Journal of Education Policy 24 (6):769-786.
Van Zyl, Ethel Vera. 2006. "The role of school managers in developing entrepreneurial skills of grade 9 learners."
Vaseghi, Behnam, Abdizazaf Hossein, Gholozi, Mahvash. (1390). Content Analysis of Entrepreneurship Textbook and Ardabil Teachers' Perspective from the Perspective of Entrepreneurship Components, Kharazmi University of Tehran.
Winarno, Agung, Trisetia Wijijayanti, Yuli Agustina, Madziatul Churiyah, and Andi Basuki. 2019. "Integration of vocational school and Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) learning: An effort of elevating entrepreneurship spirit based on strength and weakness in East Java."  Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 25 (1):1-11.
Wong, Poh Kam, Yuen Ping Ho, and Erkko Autio. 2005. "Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth: Evidence from GEM data."  Small business economics 24 (3):335-350.
Wu, Yenchun Jim, Chih-Hung Yuan, and Chia-I Pan. 2018. "Entrepreneurship education: an experimental study with information and communication technology."  Sustainability 10 (3):691.
Yarmohammadzadeh, P., and Mahdiun, R., and Qolipour, S. (2018). Identifying the effective factors to promote entrepreneurial culture in technical and vocational schools: a combined approach. A new approach in educational management, 10(2 (series 38)), 35-55[Persian].
Zahra, Shaker A, and Gerard George. 2002. "Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension."  Academy of management review 27 (2):185-203.
Zivkovic, Zdravko, Slavka T Nikolic, Rade Doroslovacki, Bojan Lalic, Jelena Stankovic, and Teodora Zivkovic. 2015. "Fostering creativity by a specially designed Doris tool."  Thinking Skills and Creativity 17:132-148.